Text & Pictures: Serge Van Heertum  - Translation: Marc Arys   © sbap 2017
    
 Early Hurricane Mk.I cutaway (Coll Serge Van Heertum)
 

The Hawker Hurricane was a single-seat fighter designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd for the Royal Air Force. Although overshadowed by the Supermarine Spitfire, the aircraft became renowned during the Battle of Britain with an amount of 60 percent of the RAF air victories. The plane served also in all the major theatres of the Second World War.
The Hurricane originated from discussions during the early 1930's between RAF officials and British aircraft designer Sir Sydney Camm on the topic of a proposed monoplane derivative of the Hawker Fury biplane. Despite an institutional preference for biplanes at the time and repeated lack of interest by the Air Ministry, Hawker chose to continue refining their monoplane proposal, which resulted in the incorporation of several innovations that would become critical to wartime fighter aircraft, such as a retractable undercarriage and the newly developed Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. In late 1934, the Air Ministry placed an order for Hawker's "Interceptor Monoplane". On November 6th, 1935, the prototype Hurricane, K5083, performed its maiden flight.



The Brooklands assembly line (Coll Serge Van Heertum)
  


Copy of the 1938 plan (Coll Serge Van Heertum)

In June 1936, the Hurricane was set into production by the Air Ministry order; the type entered squadron service on December 25th, 1937. The manufacture and maintenance of the aircraft was greatly eased by its use of conventional construction methods, which enabled squadrons to perform many major repairs themselves without much external support. The Hurricane was rapidly procured prior to the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, by which point, the RAF operated a total of 18 Hurricane-equipped squadrons. The aircraft quickly found itself being heavily relied upon to defend against the vast and varied German aircraft operated by the Luftwaffe, including dogfighting with the capable Messerschmitt Bf 109, across multiple theatres of action. It is perhaps best known for its contribution to Britain's home defences during the Battle of Britain.
The Hurricane evolved through several versions and adaptations, resulting in a series of aircraft which acted as fighters, bomber-interceptors, fighter-bombers (nicknamed "Hurribombers") and ground support aircraft. Further on, naval versions, which were popularly known as the Sea Hurricane, received modifications that enabled their operation from ships; some of these were converted to be used as catapult-launched convoy escorts (nicknamed "Hurricats"). By the end of production in 1944, in excess of 14.583 Hurricanes had been completed; including around 800 planes that had been converted into Sea Hurricane configuration and around 1.400 that had been constructed in Canada by Canadian Car and Foundry.

 

The Hurricane and the Battle of Britain
At the end of June 1940, following the fall of France, the majority of the RAF 36 fighter squadrons were equipped with Hurricanes. The Battle of Britain officially lasted from July 10th until October 31st, 1940, but the heaviest fighting took place between August 8th and September 21st. Both the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hawker Hurricane are renowned for their part in defending Britain against the Luftwaffe; generally, the Spitfire would intercept the German fighters, leaving Hurricanes to concentrate on the bombers, but, despite the undoubted abilities of the "thoroughbred" Spitfire, it was the "workhorse" Hurricane that scored the higher number of RAF victories during this battle, accounting for 55% of the 2,739 German losses, according to Fighter Command, compared to 42% by Spitfires. On August 8th, 1940, Sqn/Ldr John Peel was credited with firing the first shots of the Battle of Britain with 145 Squadron based at Tangmere.
As a fighter, the Hurricane had some drawbacks. It was slightly slower than both the Spitfire Mk I and the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, and the thicker wing profiles compromised acceleration. But it could out-turn both of them. In spite of its performance deficiencies against the Bf 109, the Hurricane was still capable to destroy the German fighter, especially at lower altitudes. The standard tactic of the Bf 109's was to climb higher than the RAF fighters and "bounce" them in a dive. The Hurricanes could evade such tactics by turning into the attack or going into a "corkscrew dive", which the 109's, with their lower rate of roll, found hard to counter. If a Bf 109 was caught in a dogfight, the Hurricane was just as capable of out-turning the Bf 109 as the Spitfire. In a stern chase, the Bf 109 could evade the Hurricane.
In September 1940, the more powerful Mk IIa (series 1) Hurricanes started entering service, although only in small numbers. This version was capable of a maximum speed of 342 mph (550 km/h).
The Hurricane was a steady gun platform, and had demonstrated its ruggedness as several were badly damaged yet returned to base. But the Hurricane's construction made it dangerous if it caught fire. The wood frames and fabric covering of the rear fuselage allowed fire to spread through the rear fuselage structure easily. In addition, the gravity fuel tank in the forward fuselage sat right in front of the instrument panel, without any form of protection for the pilot. Many Hurricane pilots were seriously burned as a consequence of flames which could burn through the instrument panel. This fact pushed Hugh Dowding to ask Hawker a retrofit of the fuselage tanks of the Hurricanes with a self-expanding rubber coating called Linatex. If the tank happened to be punctured by a bullet, the linatex coating expanded when soaked with petrol and sealed it.
From July 10th to August 11th, 1940, RAF fighters fired at 114 German bombers and shot down 80, a destruction ratio of 70%. Against the Bf 109, the RAF fighters attacked 70 and shot down 54 of these, a ratio of 77%. The Hurricane with the highest number of kills during the Battle of Britain was P3308, a Mk1, flown between August 15th and October 7th, 1940 by RAF auxiliary pilot Archie McKellar of 605 Squadron. He was credited with 21 kills, 19 of those in a Hurricane during the Battle of Britain. On October 7th he was credited with the shooting down of 5 Bf 109's, making him one of only two RAF pilots (the other Brian Carbury of New Zealand) to become an Ace in a single day during the Battle of Britain. During his brief fighting career, McKellar earned the DSO, DFC & Bar. MacKellar has remained in relative obscurity in the Battle of Britain history, as he was killed in action one day after the date set by the War Ministry as the official end date for the Battle of Britain. He was killed on November 1st, 1940 while taking on a superior number of Bf109's.
The only Battle of Britain Victoria Cross, and the only awarded to a member of Fighter Command during the war, was awarded to Flight Lieutenant Eric Nicolson of 249 Squadron as a result of an action on 16 August 1940 when his section of three Hurricanes was "bounced" from above by Bf 110 fighters. All three were hit simultaneously. Nicolson was badly wounded, and his Hurricane was damaged and engulfed in flames. While attempting to leave the cockpit, Nicolson noticed that one of the Bf 110's had overshot his aircraft. He returned to the cockpit, which by now was an inferno, engaged the enemy, and may have shot down the Bf 110.

 
The first shots of the Battle of Britain was done by the 145 Squadron
 (Coll Denis Eusicom)
The Hurricane with the highest number of kills during the BoB was the P3308
(Coll Serge Van Heertum)
 

Sir Sydney Camm, was an English aeronautical engineer who contributed to many Hawker aircraft designs, from the biplanes of the 1920's to jet fighters.
Born in Windsor, Berkshire on August 5th, 1893, he was the eldest child of the twelve children of Frederick Camm and Mary Smith.
In 1901 attended the Royal Free School on Bachelors Acre in Windsor and was granted a Foundation Scholarship in 1906. In 1908 Camm left school to become an apprentice carpenter. Camm developed an interest in aeronautics and with his brothers began building model aircraft which they supplied to Herberts' Eton High Street shop. After finding out they could obtain a higher price, they began making direct sales to the boys at Eton College, which were delivered in secret to avoid attracting the attention of Herbert's and the school authorities. These activities led him to being one of the founders of the Windsor Model Aeroplane Club in early 1912. His accomplishments as an aeroplane model builder culminated in a man-carrying glider built in 1912 within the model club.
Shortly before the start of the World War I Camm obtained a position as a shop-floor carpenter at the Martinsyde aircraft company which was located at the Brooklands racing circuit in Weybridge, Surrey. His ability soon led him being promoted to the drawing office, where he spent the war period. After the company went into liquidation in 1921, Camm was employed by George Handasyde, who had created his own aircraft manufacturing company, which was responsible for the creation of the Handasyde Monoplane.
In November 1923 Camm joined the Hawker Aircraft Company based at Canbury Park Road in Kingston upon Thames as a senior draughtsman. His first design was the Hawker Cygnet, the success of which led to his being appointed chief designer in 1925.
In 1925, in association with Fred Sigrist, Hawker's managing director, Camm developed a form of metal construction, using cheaper and simpler jointed tubes, rather than the alternative welded structure. During his employment at Hawker he was responsible for the creation of 52 different types of aircraft, of which a total of 26000 were manufactured. Among his early designs were the Tomtit, Hornbill, Nimrod, Hart and Fury. At one time in the 1930's, 84% of the aircraft in RAF services were of Sidney Camm design.
He then moved on to designing aeroplanes that would become the mainstays of the RAF in the Second World War including the Hawker Hurricane, Hawker Typhoon and Hawker Tempest.

 


Sir Sidney Camm, the Hurricane father (Coll Serge Van Heertum)

  Sidney Camm and Roy Chaplin (above)
Sydney Camm showing Prince Phillip designs for swept wing aircraft (bottom)
(Coll Denis Eusicom)
 

He had a one-tracked mind, his aircraft were right, and everybody had to work on them to get them right. If they did not, then there was hell. He was a very difficult man to work for, but you could not have a better aeronautical engineer.
Among the engineers who worked with Sidney Camm at Hawker were Sir Frederick Page (later to design the English Electric Lightning), Leslie Appleton (later to design the advanced Fairey Delta 2 and Britain's first air-to-air missile, the Fairey Fireflash), Stuart Davies (joined Avro in 1936 and later to be chief designer of the Avro Vulcan), Roy Chaplin (became chief designer at Hawker in 1957) and Sir Robert Lickley (chief project engineer during the war, and later to be chief engineer at Fairey).
With the Hurricane, Sydney Camm moved from the technology of the biplane to the contemporary monoplane fighter aircraft. The result was that fighters flew faster,and with the improved engine technology of the time, higher, and could be made deadlier than ever.
The Hawker engineer Frank Murdoch was responsible for getting the Hurricane into production in sufficient numbers before the outbreak of the war, after an eye-opening visit to the MAN diesel plant in Augsburg in 1936.
When the Typhoon's design first emerged and entered squadron service, pilots became aware that there was elevator flutter and buffeting at high speeds, due to the positioning of the heavy Napier Sabre engine intake very close to the wing root. The engineering of the aircraft to travel at higher speeds and handle compressibility effects was one of the challenges of the day, but with his small design team of one hundred members at Hawker, Camm managed to solve these problems and make the Typhoon an effective combat weapon even at these speeds. As operational requirements changed, the Typhoon was used more as a fighter-bomber, in which role its low level performance, weapon-carrying capabilities and ability to absorb damage made it very effective. It was much used in the Battle of the "Falaise Pocket", in which ground-attack aircraft proved very destructive. German losses were so severe that most of France was retaken less than two weeks after the conclusion of this operation.
The lessons learned from the Hawker Typhoon were incorporated into its successor, the Hawker Tempest. As soon as the Tempest entered service, the Air Ministry requested a new design. Sidney Camm recommended that they keep the existing design of the Typhoon for the most part, with modifications to the airfoil. He also considered the new and powerful Napier Sabre and Bristol Centaurus engines as the power plant. Camm decided that both engines would be used: the Tempest Mk 5 was fitted with the Napier Sabre, while the Tempest Mk 2 had the Bristol Centaurus. The design modifications to be made to the aircraft to switch from one engine type to another were minimal, so that little assistance was needed in ferrying these aircraft all the way to India and Pakistan, in the final days of the conflict.

 
 Sidney Camm carreer overview…Martinside era, the Hawker Cygnet first realization, the Hawker Hart prototype, the Hurricane in company of the Henley, 
Typhoon and Tempest prototypes, the jet age with the Hawker Hunter and P.1127 prototypes.
(Mix coll Serge Van Heertum & Denis Eusicom)
  

The Sea Fury was a higher performance development of the Tempest with a reduced wing area, a Centaurus engine and a considerably improved view for the pilot. Named the Fury, only the carrier-based Hawker Sea Fury went into service, serving with the Royal Navy from 1947 to 1955.
After the Second World War, Camm created many jet-powered designs which would become important aircraft in the Cold War era.
Notable among these are his contributions to the Hawker Siddeley P.1127 / Kestrel FGA.1, the progenitor of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. The Harrier is a well-known vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft designed at Hawker Siddeley, which would later merge into British Aerospace, now known as BAE Systems. The Harrier was one of the radical concept aircraft which took shape in postwar Britain, which required the coming together of many important technologies, such as vectored thrust engines like the Bristol Siddeley (later Rolls-Royce) Pegasus and technologies like the Reaction Control System. Camm played a major role in determining these and other vital Harrier systems.
In 1953, Camm was knighted for these and other achievements and his contribution to British Aviation. The P.1127 first flew on October 21st, 1960. Working with Camm on this aircraft and the Hunter was professor John Fozard, who became head of the Hawker design office in 1961 and would write a biography of Camm in 1991.
Sidney Camm worked on many aircraft built by Hawker before the Harrier, including what is probably his most significant aircraft after the Second World War, the Hawker Hunter.
In his final years, Sidney Camm was President of the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS) from 1954 to 1955. Camm retired as chief designer at Hawker in 1965 and was succeeded by John Fozard. He, however, remained on the board of its successor until his death.
Before he died, Camm was planning the design of a Mach 4 capability aircraft, having begun his life in aircraft design with the building of a man-carrying glider in 1912, just nine years after the first powered flight.
Sir Sidney Camm died on March 12th 1966 while playing golf at the Richmond Golf Course. He was 72 years old and is buried in Long Ditton cemetery.
In 1966, Camm was posthumously awarded the Guggenheim Gold Medal.

 
 
Duxford Hurricane Festival
 
 
 
 Tailfin and rudder Landing light
 Different kind of engine exhaust

  The screw spinner
 Fuselage cocade Underwing type with the pitot tube
 Different types of air cooling filter
 The caliper for cockpit access The windshield and the canopy

 
 Servicing markings
 The skin Gun access door

 The main wheel and the tail wheel The main landing gear
 Markings and position light Mk.IIb exhaust
 0.303 in machine gun from the Mk.IIb Universal AP bombs carrier and 250lbs bomb
 

Hawker Hurricane Mk.I (G-ROBT Serial Number P2902) was built in 1939 by Gloster Aircraft under contract no 962371/38/C.23a. It first flew around the October 20th, 1939. By May 1940 P2902 was operational with 245 Fighter Squadron based at Drem on the East Coast of Scotland engaged on shipping protection patrols. On the May 31st, 1940, carrying the code DX and the individual code R for Robert was piloted by Pilot Officer Kenneth McGlashan. Heading for the French coast to provide cover for the armada of small ships collecting thousands of Allied troops trapped on the shore as the Germans swept across Northern France towards the Channel (Operation Dynamo, evacuation from Dunkirk), he engaged and was hit by fire from a Messerschmitt Bf 109. The badly injured pilot managed to bring the damaged aircraft down to crash land on a beach in Dunkirk area, where it remained until recovered by French enthusiasts in 1988. It was obtained some time later by warbird operator Rick Roberts who subsequently employed the services of several restorers before finally engaging Hawker Restorations, where it was returned to flying condition.

 
 
 
 

Hurricane Mk XIIa 5711 (G-HURI) was rebuilt in the 1980's from the best original Hurricane parts sourced, in the previous 10 years, from all over Canada. It was given the identity of aircraft CCF c/n 72036 as that aircraft was the source of the airframe used in the rebuild. RCAF 5711 had been built in 1942 by the Canadian Car Foundry as part of their sixth production batch and joined the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1943. It is believed to have served with 123 Squadron at Debert before going to 127 and 129 Squadrons at Dartmouth and onto 1 Operational Training Unit at Bagotville. It made its first post-restoration flight in 1989 painted in RAF markings as Z3781 coded XR-T of No 71 Eagle Squadron. Historic Aircraft Collection acquired the Hurricane in 2002 and after undergoing an 18 month extensive program of repairs and maintenance the Hurricane reappeared in an entirely new paint scheme for 2004, Z5140 coded HA-C of No. 126 Squadron the paint scheme that was worn by a Gloster-built Hurricane IIB, flown with 126 Squadron during the siege of Malta. In September 2005 Hurricane Z5140 became the first Hurricane to return to the Mediterranean island of Malta since the Second World War. It flew there together with Spitfire BM597 as part of the Merlins Over Malta project. In August 2012 she flew to Moscow to display in their centenary airshow. For the 75th anniversary in 2015 of the Battle of Britain G-HURI has been repainted in the RAF markings as P3700 a Hurricane Mk1, coded RF-E of No 303 (Polish) Squadron. P3700 was abandoned by Sgt Kazimierz Wunsche over Poynings, Kent on 9th September 1940 after sustaining damage from a Bf 109 during combat over Beachy Head.

 
 
 
 
 

Hawker Hurricane Mk.I (G-HITT Serial Number P3717) was built in 1940 as one of 544 Hurricanes built as part of the 3rd production batch. She was delivered to 253 Squadron at Kirton in Lindsey on the July 13th, 1940 and was flown by Pilot Officer W M C Samolinski. The unit then transferred to its new base of operations, RAF Kenley, on the August 29th, 1940.
P3717's Battle of Britain was brief. After landing and refueling at Kenley on the 29th the aircraft of 253 squadron were scrambled at 16.00 for a standing patrol. This however proved uneventful. 10.50 am the following day saw a squadron scramble to counter the 3 incoming waves of Albert Kesselring's Luftflotte 2. Samolinski and P3717 were in the thick of the action and a running fight developed across the south of England. This culminated in Samolinksi and P3717 being credited with the destruction of a Bf 110 over Redhill in Surrey. P3717 however was so badly damaged in this action that she had to be returned to Hawkers for significant repairs.
The rework at Hawkers saw her rebuilt to Mk.II configuration and sent to Russia. It was from here that she was recovered on the late 1990's and the long road to returning to airworthiness started.
2017 is P3717's debut season and she is based along with her Hurricane Heritage stable mate Hurricane R4118 at Old Warden Aerodrome.

 
 
 
 
 

Hawker Hurricane Mk.X (P2921 serial AE977) was built by Canadian Car and Foundry as a Hurricane Mk.I, with the serial AE977, in the spring of 1941. It went first to the Royal Air Force, then the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy, for whose use it was converted into a naval version Sea Hurricane Mk.X. While based at Yeovilton it was involved in a mid-air collision during December 1942; the aircraft was written off. It spent many years in storage, before its purchase first by well-known warbird recovery specialist Jim Pearce, and then New Zealand collector Sir Tim Wallis and Tony Ditheridge of Hawker Restorations, who embarked on its rebuild in 1994. A first flight was made on June 7th, 2000, the aircraft then painted as Douglas Bader's No 242 Squadron mount from 1940. AE977 went Stateside in 2001, joining the Friedkin family collection at Chino, California. During 2012 it was shipped back to the UK, and since then it has been based at the Biggin Hill Heritage Hangar. Its colours are now those of P2921, a No 32 Squadron Hurricane based at Biggin Hill in 1940 and flown by then Flt Lt Pete Brothers.

 
 
 
 
 

Hawker Hurricane Mk.IIb (AG287 - serial CCF/R20023) was built at the Canadian Car & Foundry Company factory in 1942. The aircraft was originally ordered as a Mk.I for the Royal Air Force and allocated the military serial number AG287. The production batch was subsequently diverted to RCAF use and a new Canadian serial, 1374 was allocated. Delivered on February 11th, 1942, she served with the RCAF until being returned to the factory in 1943 to be up-graded to Mk.XII standard (This included the installation of the more powerful Packard built Merlin 29 engine). Returned to RCAF use she was issued to No.1 (F) OTU at Bagotville where she remained until struck off charge on September 6th, 1944.
Following the end of hostilities the airframe was sold off to the private sector, as were many surviving RCAF Hurricanes at that time, often becoming much needed "hardware stores" donating their parts to keep the tractors and machinery running on the many enormous farms of the Canadian prairie. The AG287 was lucky and remained substantially whole and was acquired by collector Jack Arnold in the 1970's. After passing through the hands of other collectors she was purchased by Tony Ditheridge of Hawker Restorations Ltd. Returning to the UK and initially stored as a future personal project, restoration work began in earnest in 2005 at Hawker Restorations Ltd facility in Suffolk. The project made steady progress until it was acquired by Hangar 11 Collection in 2007 and re-registered as G-HHII. The comprehensive restoration was completed in January 2009 and saw this rare Hurricane rolled out in fighter-bomber configuration resplendent in the markings of BE505, a Manston based Mk IIB operated by 174 (Mauritius) Squadron in spring, 1942. Her first post-restoration flight took place from North Weald on January 27th, 2009.

 
 
 
 
 

Hawker Sea Hurricane Mk.Ib (Z7015) was built by Canadian Car & Foundry as Mk.i standard for the Royal Air Force and first flown on January 18th, 1941. After being shipped to England it was issued to General Aircraft for conversion to Sea Hurricane Mk.IB standard. On July 19th, she was delivered to HMS Heron (RNAS Yeovilton), collected July 29th, 1941 by 880 Squadron and went to the Orkney Isles. On October 7th, 1941 the Squadron left to embark on HMS Indomitable but during transit Z7015 went unserviceable and was not embarked.
On April 5th, 1942 the aircraft was delivered to David Rosenfield Ltd for repair. On December 7th she was delivered to the Naval Fighter School 759 Squadron at HMS Heron and by autumn 1943 had moved to Loughborough College as an instructional airframe.
In 1961 an attempt was made to make the Hurricane airworthy for the Battle of Britain film but the work involved was too great. In January 1986, the team that had restored Spitfire VC AR501 took on the task in a joint operation between the Shuttleworth Collection and the Imperial War Museum.
On September 16th, 1995 Z7015 made a successful post restoration flight powered by what was, at the time, the world's only operational Merlin III.

 
 
 
 
Hawker Hurricane Mk.IIc (PZ865), was manufactured at Langley, Buckinghamshire in July 1944 and was the last Hurricane to be produced of 14533 units, it was marked on each side with the inscription "The Last of the Many". Keen to preserve the last Hurricane ever built, Hawkers purchased the aircraft back from the Air Ministry and kept it in storage at Langley.
In 1950, PZ865 became the G-AMAU and entered in the King's Cup Air Race by HRH Princess Margaret. The aircraft was flown by Group Captain Peter Townsend CVO DSO DFC and achieved second place.
Over the next three years PZ865 participated in several other air races and was modified for racing with the removal of its cannons and the installation of two wing fuel tanks.
During the 1960s, the Last of the many was returned to its wartime camouflage scheme and made numerous display appearances, often in the hands of the famous fighter pilot and test pilot Bill Bedford OBE AFC. It also appeared in the movie "The 'Battle of Britain" of Georges Hamilton in March 1972, after a complete overhaul, PZ865 was flown to Coltishall and presented by Hawker Siddeley to the BBMF.
For many years the aircraft appeared as "The Last of the Many" but the inscription was removed and the aircraft put on display in the BBMF headquarters. In 1996, replica 20mm guns, funded by the Lincolnshire's Lancaster Association, were fitted to PZ865 to restore the aircraft's appearance to that of a Mk IIC Hurricane.
Since 2012 this famous Hurricane has faithfully replicated Hurricane Mk IIC HW840, coded "EG-S", of 34 Squadron, South East Asia Command during 1944. She was the personal aircraft of Canadian pilot, Flight Lieutenant Jimmy Whalen DFC. Sadly, Jimmy lost his life on April 18th, 1944, 5 days before his 24th birthday, during the Battle for Kohima. He had carried out 176 missions against the enemy, 107 being over enemy territory and 23 at night. He had to his credit three Bf 109s destroyed and one damaged whilst flying from England and three Japanese Navy Val Type 99s destroyed over Ceylon.
 
 
 
 
Airworthy Hawker Hurricane in 2017
 

Hurricane Mk Mk.XII (5481) (Australia) (C-FDNL)
Hurricane Mk Mk.IV (KZ321) (Canada) (CF-TPM)
Hurricane Mk.XII (5418) (Canada) on display but fully operational
Hurricane Mk.I (P3351) (France) (F-AZXR) rebuilt and paint as Mk.IIa "K" (DR393)
Hurricane Mk.I (P2902) (United Kingdom) (G-ROBT)
Hurricane Mk.I (P3717) (United Kingdom) (G-HITT)
Hurricane Mk.I (R4118) (United Kingdom) (G-HUPW)
Hurricane Mk.XII (5711) (United Kingdom) (G-HURI) paint as Mk.I "RF-E" (P3700)
Hurricane Mk.XIIA (5487) (United Kingdom) (G-CBOE) paint as Rhodesian Air Force Mk.IIb (AG244)
Hurricane Mk.IIc (LF363) United Kingdom) (BBMF-RAF military)
Hurricane Mk.IIc (PZ865) (United Kingdom) (BBMF-RAF military)
Hurricane Mk.IIb (BE505) (United Kingdom) (G-HHII)
Sea Hurricane Mk.Ib (Z7015) (United Kingdom) (G-BKTH)
Sea Hurricane Mk.X (AE977) (United Kingdom) (G-CHTK) paint as Mk.I "ZL-G" (P2921)
Hurricane Mk.XII (5667) (United States) (N2549)
Sea Hurricane Mk.XII (BW881) (United States) (G-KAMM)

 
 Tribute to the Hawker Hurricane
 
 
 
 To Sir Sidney Camm, the Hawker Hurricane and the Battle of Britain Men and Women... We will never forgot your fight for our liberty!

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