Text & Pictures: Serge Van Heertum © sbap 2014

The last Shuttleworth airshow of the 2014 season was so particular and appealing that SBAP could not resist to cross the Channel once more to go to Bigelswade and rejoin the mythical terrain of Old Warden, home of this invaluable collection.

This time the “race planes” better known as “Racers” were put to honour following the recent restoration of the incredible De Havilland DH-88 “Comet” who flew again at the beginning of August.

It was an excellent idea for the organizers to put those sometimes strange and elegant shaped planes forward, designed to set records or to win races. These strange but beautiful machines played undoubtedly a great part in the evolution of aeronautical technologies.

Besides these aircraft, which are rarely seen during airshows, the organizers also presented other kinds of planes ranging from the Royal Aircraft Factory SE5A and Bristol M1C from the first World War to the Hawker Hunter through a threesome ofsecond world war aircraft: Westland Lysander, Gloster Gladiator and Hawker Sea Hurricane.

It was simply incredible and fabulous to watch all these aircraft from another era in their environment : the sky !

And this was not all, the numerous visitors attending this airshow had the opportunity to see the smooth flying of the Fauvel sailplane or watch the powerful flight of a Zivko Edge 540.  Also worthwhile was the display of the charming Hawker Cygnet and the highlight of the day, an aeronautical race as those dating back from between the two wars. Nice to see the De Havilland DH-60X Moth (first aircraft of the collection !), the Miles Magister, Miles Falcon Major, Miles Hawk Speed Six, two Chilton DW-1 and the Spartan Executive in flight…What a sight !

As in the old days, the start of the race was given by the flag on the runway played by our charming contact Miss Ciara Harper !

In short, just a fabulous and amazing airshow ! But the tradition at Old Warden airfield states that the end of the show is reserved for the early years of flight, called “Edwardians” by the organizers and so the visitors could watch the venerable Bristol Boxkite, Avro Triplane, Blackburn Monoplane type D and other Deperdussin 1910. This is only possible weather permitting which was the case during this weekend of October 05 and was a real leap in time.

We would like to thank warmly the organizers for their work and particularly Miss Ciara Harper and her media-team for their always smiling reception, the facilities granted during our stay and the excellent spot on site as you will witness in our exceptional pictures.The season ended well, but it is with a greedy look we turn towards 2015 as the program of the Shuttleworth Collection is already made up and we certainly will plan some future reports for the greatest pleasure of our readers and our own, of course !

Air and ground... Not only Air race...
Equipped with Napier engine!
Static display only: Polikarpov Po2
Bücker Bü-133 Jungmeister
De Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk 22
World War I air combat...in scale models!
The 2014 season final airshow...British delith!

The Hawker Hunter T.7 WV372 was built as an F.4 and first flew on 15th July 1955. Delivered to 222(F) Squadron on 2nd September 1955, around a year later her rear fuselage was badly damaged by an in-flight fire caused by hot exhaust gases escaping when the jet pipe detached from the engine. Returned to Hawkers, the aircraft was repaired and converted to a T.7 and returned to the RAF (5 MU) on May 1959. It went on to serve with the RAF Jever and Gutersloh Station Flights, II(AC) Squadron (in the current colours) and 4 FTS. After retirement it was one of Jet Heritage's airworthy Hunters and carried out one of her first public displays in 1998. Since then the aircraft has changed hands several times, having been owned by the Fox One consortium (based at Kemble), then Conciair Ltd and then Hunter Flying based for some time at Exeter, and part of the short-lived Team Viper display team, before moving to their new base at St. Athan. This plane was put up for sale once more and is now based with new owners at North Weald.

The Fauvel AV.36 was a single-seat tailless glider designed in France in the 1950s by Charles Fauvel. Although the "AV" in AV.36 stands for “Aile Volante” (Flying Wing), it was not a true flying wing: it featured two large fins mounted on stubby tail booms extending back from the wing's trailing edge, and accommodated the pilot within a stubby fuselage. The aircraft was designed to be quickly disassembled for road transport, with the nose detaching, and the fins able to fold back against the trailing edge of the wing. A refined version with a slightly longer wingspan, the AV.361 was introduced in 1960. The AV.36 lent itself to easy motorization, with some builders installing an engine at the rear of the cockpit pod to drive a pusher propeller turning between the tail fins, and the Bölkow factory manufactured some aircraft in this configuration as the AV.36 C11. Plans for the AV.36 have not been available in France since Fauvel's death in 1979, but as of 2012 they are still available from Canadian supplier Falconar Avia of Edmonton, Alberta.

North American P-51D Mustang 44-72035 (G-SIJJ)  "Jumpin Jacques" is a P-51D-20-NA model, built at North American’s Inglewood facility in California. Accepted by the USAAF on December 21 1944 as 44-72035 she was originally earmarked for service with the Eighth Air Force in England but this was quickly changed to Project Number 91037R, indicating service in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations. Having spent the Christmas and New Year period at Inglewood 44-72035 began her journey overseas on January 4 1945 with a ferry flight across the mainland USA arriving at Newark, New Jersey, on January 10. She was prepared for shipment, by boat, overseas and finally left the US on January 24 1945, assigned to "Oham" the codeword for the 15th Air Force based in Italy. 44-72035 was assigned to the 332nd Fighter Group. The 332nd became very famous as the first all African-American Fighter Group known as "The Tuskegee Airmen", although at the time they were referred to them as "The Red Tails". She entered combat with the 15th Air Force around March 1945,in the last few months of the war flying on bomber escort and ground attack sweeps over Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. She still carries the battle scars to this day, with bullet repairs in several places on the fuselage.

The de Havilland DH-88 "Comet" was a twin-engine British aircraft designed for the 1934 Mac Robertson Air Race. Three examples took part in the race and one of them won it. The type set many aviation records during the race and afterwards, as a pioneer mail plane. The modern features and clean lines of the DH.88, especially in the striking colours of Grosvenor House, the race winner, make it a true design classic.
The Mac Robertson International Air Race, a race between London and Melbourne to be held in October 1934 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the State of Victoria, was announced in 1933. Despite previous British air racing successes, culminating in 1931 in the outright winning of the Schneider Trophy, there was no British airplane capable of putting up a challenge over the Mac Robertson course with its long overland stages. In January 1934, the de Havilland Company stepped into the breach when it offered to design a 200 mph (322 km/h) aircraft to compete in the race and produce a limited run if three were ordered by February 1934. The sale price of £5,000 each would by no means cover the development costs.
Three orders were indeed received, and de Havilland set to work. The airframe consisted of a wooden skeleton clad with spruce plywood, with a final fabric covering on the wings. A long streamlined nose held the main fuel tanks, with the low-set and fully glazed central two-seat cockpit faired into an unbroken line to the tail. The wings were of a thin cantilever monoplane design for high-speed flight, and as such would require stressed-skin construction to achieve sufficient strength. While other designers were turning to metal to provide this extra strength, de Havilland took the unusual approach of increasing the strength of all-wood construction. De Havilland achieved the skin profile using many thin, shaped pieces set side by side, and then overlaid in the manner of plywood. This was made possible only by the recent development of high-strength synthetic bonding resins and its success took many in the industry by surprise.
The engines were updated versions of the standard Gipsy Six, being tuned for best performance with a higher compression ratio. The DH.88 could maintain altitude up to 4,000 feet (1,200 m) on one engine. The propellers were two-position variable pitch, manually set to fine before takeoff using a bicycle pump and changed automatically to course by a pressure sensor. The main undercarriage retracted upwards and backwards into the engine nacelles, while the tailskid did not retract. Later examples and rebuilds would feature a castoring tail wheel.
Landing flaps were placed slightly forward of the inboard wing trailing edge and continued in to the aircraft center line. The forward fuselage was occupied by two large fuel tanks, with a third small tank located behind the cockpit.
With de Havilland managing to meet the challenging production schedule, testing of the DH.88 began six weeks before the start date of the race.
In 1935, de Havilland proposed a high-speed bomber version of the DH.88 to the RAF, but the proposal was rejected.
The DH.88 might have been the only wooden British high-performance monoplane, but for a shortage of metal for aircraft construction during the Second World War. Experience with the DH.88 would later be put to use in designing the DH.98 Mosquito, also a twin-engine monoplane of wooden construction. The Mosquito was not simply the 1935 proposal revisited but was a much bigger and more powerful aircraft powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin engines delivering over twice the power of the Gipsy Sixes.

MacRobertson Race

On the day of the race, the three distinctively coloured aircraft took their places among 17 other entrants ranging from a new Douglas DC-2 airliner to two converted Fairey Foxbombers.

Black Magic
First to take off at 6.30 a.m. on 20 October were Jim and Amy Mollison in their own G-ACSP Black Magic. They made a faultless journey to Baghdad, and reached Karachi at around 10 a.m. on the second race day, setting a new England-India record. Problems began for the Mollisons when their landing gear failed to retract, and after returning Karachi for repairs, they were again delayed by an inability to navigate at night.
Further problems followed when they made an unscheduled refueling stop at Jobbolpore but found no aviation fuel. Running instead on fuel used by the local bus company, an engine piston seized and an oil line ruptured. They flew on to Allahabad and retired.

Grosvenor House
The scarlet G-ACSS was the property of Mr A.O.Edwards and was named Grosvenor House after the hotel which he managed. The crew was C. W. A. Scott and Tom Campbell Black. When the Mollisons ran into problems at Karachi, Scott and Campbell Black took over the lead and were first into Allahabad. Despite a severe storm over the Bay of Bengal they reached Singapore safely, eight hours ahead of the DC-2.
They took off for Darwin, but over the Timor Sea lost power in the port engine when the oil pressure dropped to zero. Repairs at Darwin got them going again, although continuing oil warnings caused them to fly the last two legs with one engine throttled back. Their lead was unassailable despite this, and after the final mandatory stop and more engine work at Charleville they flew on to cross the finish line at Flemington Racecourse at 3.33 p.m. (local time) on 23 October. Their official time was 71 hours 18 seconds.

 

Records achieved by G-ACSS “Grosvenor House”

20-23 October 1934 C. W. A. Scott and Tom Campbell Black went from Mildenhall, England to Melbourne, Australia (11000 miles) in 70 hours 55 min (Still held in 2010).

14-16 November 1937 A.E. Clouston and Mrs Kirby-Green went from London to Cape Town (7091 miles) in 45 hours 6 min.

18-20 November 1937 The return trip was completed in 57 hours 23 min.

15-20 March 1938 A.E. Clouston and V. Ricketts went from London to New Zealand (13179 miles) in 104 hours 20 min.

20-26 March 1938 The return trip was completed in 140 hours 12 min. Here the times to and from Sydney, Australia en route to New Zealand were also confirmed as records.

 

The third Comet: G-ACSR
The third Comet, G-ACSR had been paid for by racing driver Bernard Rubin and was flown by Owen Cathcart Jones and Ken Waller. They had to make a second unscheduled stop at Baghdad after they found that they had had a serious oil leak. They were forced to delay for repairs which were carried out by T.J.Holmes. They caught up with the Mollisons at Karachi. They were the fourth aircraft to reach Melbourne, in a time of 108 h 13 min 45 s. Cathcart Jones and Waller promptly collected film of the Australian stages of the race and set off to carry it back to Britain. Their return time of 13½ days set a new record.

 

Later use
Grosvenor House was taken charge of by the Air Ministry and flown to Martlesham Heath for evaluation. Repainted silver and given the military serial K-5084 it made several flights before being written off and sold for scrap after a heavy landing. It was subsequently sold on, rebuilt and fitted with Gypsy Six series II engines and a castoring tailwheel, in which form it made several race and record attempts under various names. It claimed fourth place in the 1937 Istres-Damascus-Paris race, and later the same year lowered the out-and-home record to the Cape to 15 days 17 hours. In March 1938, Arthur Edmond Clouston and Victor Anthony Ricketts made a return trip to New Zealand covering 26,450 mi (42,570 km) in 10 days 21 hours 22 minutes.

G-ACSR was renamed Reine Astrid and flew the Christmas mail from Brussels to Leopoldville in the Belgian Congo in 1934. It was then sold to the French government as F-ANPY and set a Croydon-Le Bourget record of 52 minutes on 5 July 1935. It subsequently made Paris–Casablanca and Paris—Algiers high-speed proving flights. F-ANPY was destroyed in a hangar fire at Istres in France in June 1940.

Black Magic was sold to Portugal for a projected flight from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. Re-registered CS-AAJ and renamed Salazar it made various flights from London to Lisbon, setting a time of 5 hr, 17 min in July 1937. It was re-discovered in a ruinous condition in Portugal in 1979 and is currently undergoing restoration in Derby, England.

The de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide was a 1930s British short-haul biplane passenger airliner.
In late 1933, the Dragon Rapide was designed at the de Havilland company as a faster and more comfortable successor to the DH.84 Dragon. It was in effect a twin-engined, scaled-down version of the four-engined DH.86 Express. It shared many common features with the DH.86 Express, including its tapered wings, streamlined fairings and the Gipsy Six engine, but it demonstrated none of the operational vices of the DH.86 Express, and went on to become perhaps the most successful British-built short-haul commercial passenger aircraft of the 1930s.

The Desoutter Mk I “Dolphin” was built by the Desoutter Aircraft Company, a British aircraft manufacturer based in Croydon. It was founded by Marcel Desoutter and produced aircraft during the late 1920s and the 1930s.
The company was formed in December 1928 to manufacture the designs of the Dutch Koolhoven company in particular the Koolhoven F.K.41, which had drawn a lot of attention due to its modern design. The licence was obtained and Desoutter set up a production unit at the former ADC factory at Croydon Aerodrome. The F.K.41 became quite successful and was marketed under the name Dolphin. The name "Dolphin" was later dropped and for a while the aircraft was marketed only under the name "Desoutter". A slightly modified version was later produced and the versions received the suffixes Mk.I and Mk.II.
Desoutter's aircraft became a familiar sight in British flying clubs, where they were used for instruction, pleasure flights and taxi flights. The business folded in 1932 after its main customer, National Flying Services at London Air Park, Hanworth, went into liquidation, having produced 41 aircraft (twenty-eight Mk.Is and thirteen Mk.IIs).

The Miles M.3 Falcon is a 1930s British three/four-seat cabin monoplane aircraft designed by Miles Aircraft Limited.
The M.3 Falcon was a clean, single engined low-wing monoplane with trousered main undercarriage and fixed tail-wheel, designed in 1934. It was structurally similar to the earlier Miles M.2F Hawk Major family, but had side-by-side seating for two behind the pilot in a glazed cockpit. It was powered by a 130 hp (97 kW) de Havilland Gipsy Major piston engine. The prototype, G-ACTM, built by Philips and Powis first flew at Woodley Aerodrome on 12 October 1934. The first production aircraft (designated M.3A Falcon Major) was flown in January 1935. It had a wider fuselage than the prototype to improve passenger comfort and revised glazing with a forward sloping windscreen. The M.3A was somewhat underpowered, so the (M.3B Falcon Six) and later versions were fitted with a 200 hp (150 kW) de Havilland Gipsy Six engine. The M.3C Falcon Six was a four seater with dual controls. The M.3D was strengthened to allow an 11% increase in all up weight compared with the M.3B. The final versions were the M.3E and M.3F. An enlarged five-seat version was developed as the M.4 Merlin.

The Miles M.2 Hawk Trainer was a 1930s British two-seat training monoplane designed by Miles Aircraft Limited.The Miles Hawk Trainer was developed from the Hawk Major to meet a requirement to supplement the de Havilland Tiger Moth in the training role. The aircraft had dual controls, blind flying equipment and vacuum operated flaps. In 1937 the design was further developed to meet an Air Ministry specification for a trainer and became the M.14 Magister.

The de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth is a British three-seater high-wing monoplane aeroplane designed and built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company between 1929 and 1933. It flew at a speed approaching 124 mph (200 km/h), making it one of the highest-performance private aircraft of its era.
The unnamed DH.80 prototype which first flew in September 1929 was designed for the flourishing private flying movement in the United Kingdom. It was a streamlined all-wooden aircraft fitted with the new de Havilland Gipsy III inverted inline engine that gave unimpeded vision across the nose without the protruding cylinder heads of the earlier Gipsy II engine.
After the prototype was tested, the aircraft was redesigned with a fabric-covered steel-tube fuselage and as such redesigned the DH.80A Puss Moth. The first production aircraft flew in March 1930 and was promptly sent on a sales tour of Australia and New Zealand. Orders came quickly and in the three years of production ending in March 1933, 259 were manufactured in England. An additional 25 aircraft were built by de Havilland Canada. Most were fitted with the 130 hp (97 kW) Gipsy Major engine that gave slightly better performance.
The Puss Moth was replaced on the production line by the de Havilland DH.85 Leopard Moth that, with a plywood fuselage, was both cheaper to build, and lighter weight. Being lighter, the Leopard Moth had better performance on the same rather modest 130 hp (97 kW) Gipsy Major engine.

The Percival Mew Gull was a British racing aircraft of the 1930s. It was a small, single-engine, single-seat, low-wing monoplane of wooden construction, normally powered by a six-cylinder de Havilland Gipsy Six piston engine. During its racing career it set many records and was considered a significant, efficient design, one that eventually reached a top speed of 265 mph (425 km/h) on a modest 205 hp (153 kW) in its final 1939 form. A modern-day observer has characterised the Mew Gull as "The Holy Grail of British air racing". During the second half of the 1930s, Mew Gulls were dominant in air-racing in the UK and consistently recorded the fastest times until the outbreak of war stopped all civilian flying in late 1939.
With the Percival Gull already making a name for itself as a racer, over several months in 1933-1934, Capt. Edgar W. Percival designed and built a single-seat racer derivative initially named the E1 'Mew Gull'. This was developed into the E2, E2H and the E3H variants between 1934 and 1938. The sometimes-used designation "P6" is incorrect; this retrospective tag was created after Percival left the company and long after the Mew Gulls were built, thus no Mew Gulls were ever built as "P6s". With the exception of the sole E3H, G-AFAA - which was built after the company moved to Luton, all of the Mew gulls were built in the small factory at Gravesend. It should be noted that the E3H, whilst very strongly visually resembling the E2H, was in truth a totally new and different machine, with each element differing from its predecessor in some way. It was most certainly not a “clipped-wing” version of the E2H as it has sometimes been described.
Structurally, there was very little commonality of parts between the Gulls IV/ VI/ Vega Gull and the Mew Gull, other than a few minor components. All of the Gulls, however, did use a similar generic structure. Proprietary equipment such as engines, airscrews, spinners, instruments, undercarriage legs, wheels and tires were generally common to all series. The Mew Gulls (apart from the E1 in its initial configuration) used a fixed, conventional oleomatic main undercarriage and a fully castoring tailskid. Small manually operated, split trailing-edge wing flaps were incorporated into the mainlines, but were “...singularly ineffective even when fully extended".
The aircraft was designed for handicapped air racing which gained huge popularity in the UK during the 1920s and especially 1930s – the so-called "Golden Age" of aviation. The King's Cup Race, an annual handicapped air racing event developed to aid in the development of British light aircraft, was considered to be the "Blue-Riband" event. Ultimately, Mew Gulls went on to win this event four times.
The prototype G-ACND first flew in March 1934 with a 165 hp Napier Javelin, but it was replaced with a more powerful and reliable 200 hp Gipsy Six engine, fitted with a fixed-pitch airscrew, prior to its first race.

The Van's RV-7 and RV-7A are two-seat, single-engine, low-wing homebuilt airplanes sold in kit form by Van's Aircraft. The RV-7 is the tail-wheel equipped version, while the RV-7A features a nose-wheel. The RV-7 is the replacement for the RV-6 and is externally similar to the earlier model, with longer wings, larger fuel tanks and a larger rudder to improve spin recovery characteristics.
The designer of the Van’s aircraft line, Richard Van
Grunsven, designed the RV-7 series as a replacement for the RV-6. The RV-6 itself was a two seat side-by-side development of the RV-4, which was, in turn, a two seat version of the single seat RV-3.
The RV-7 incorporated many changes as a result of lessons learned over the years in producing over 2,000 RV-6 kits. The RV-7 airframe will accept larger engines, including the Lycoming IO-360, up to 200 hp (149 kW). The RV-7 also has increased wingspan and wing area over the RV-6, as well as more headroom, legroom and an increased useful load. The RV-7 carries a total of 42 US gallons of fuel, up from 38 US gallons on the RV-6. The RV-7 shares many common parts with the RV-8 and RV-9 which reduces production costs. The RV-7 also uses computer assisted design to produce a kit with pre-punched rivet holes, thus greatly reducing assembly time for the builder. Construction time is estimated at about 1500 hours for an average builder. The RV-7A version features a hardened, solid steel nose wheel strut that fits into a tube welded to the engine mount. As in all nose-wheel equipped RV aircraft, the nose wheel is free castering and the aircraft is steered with differential braking, or rudder at higher taxi speeds. The brakes are conventional toe brakes. In 2013, 1291 RV-7s and RV-7As had been completed and were flying.

The Elliots Primary EoN or EoN Type 7 S.G.38 Primary was a training glider developed in the UK shortly after World War II. It was an absolutely minimalist aircraft, consisting of a high, strut-braced wing connected to a conventional empennage by an open-truss framework, and was a copy of the German SG 38 Schulgleiter. Marketed to aeroclubs, the Primary EoN was also adopted in 1948 by the Air Training Corps and by the Combined Cadet Force under the name Eton TX.1.

The Hawker Cygnet was a British ultralight biplane aircraft of the 1920s.
The aircraft were of wood and fabric construction, the fuselage being four longerons strutted in the fashion of a Warren girder. The wing was two box spars with Warren truss ribs. Initially the two aircraft were powered one by an Anzani and the other by an ABC Scorpion (both opposed twin cylinder engines). In 1926 the engines in both Cygnets were changed to Bristol Cherub III another two-cylinder engine. The airframe weighed a remarkably low 270 lb, and its weight when empty was only 373 lb
s.

The English Electric Wren was a 1920s British ultralight monoplane built by the English Electric Company Limited at Lytham St Annes, Lancashire.
The Wren, designed by William Manning, was one of the first ultralight aircraft. Bill Manning was a designer of flying boats and decided to try a simpler project. The Wren was a single-engined high-wing monoplane with an empty weight of only 232 lb (105 kg). The first aircraft (Serial Number J6973) was built in 1921 for the Air Ministry. Interest in building very light aircraft was encouraged at the time by a £500 prize offered by the Duke of Sutherland (who was the Under-Secretary of State for Air). The entrants had to build the most economical light single-seat aircraft. Another incentive was a £1,000 prize offered by the Daily Mail for the longest flight by a motor-glider with an engine of not more than 750 cc. Two aircraft were built for the 1923 Lympne light aircraft trials in October 1923. The Wren shared the first prize with the ANEC I when it covered 87.5 miles (140.8 km) on one Imperial gallon (4.5 litres) of fuel. In 1957 the third aircraft was rebuilt using parts of the second aircraft. It is still airworthy and is on public display at the Shuttleworth Collection at Old Warden Aerodrome in Bedfordshire.

The Taylor JT-2 Titch was a 1960s British fixed-wing aircraft design for a homebuilt aircraft by J.F. Taylor. As a result of request for an aircraft with higher performance than the Taylor Monoplane of 1959, John F Taylor designed a high performance single seater the Titch. Taylor built the prototype, registered G-ATYO, at Leigh-on-Sea, Essex between 1965 and 1966. The Titch first flew at Southend Airport on 4 January 1967. It’s all wood construction is similar to the Monoplane but has fewer metal fittings than the earlier design and full size wing rib plans are supplied for the tapered wing panels. With a cruise speed in the region of 160 mph (260 km/h), it is an effective cross country touring aircraft and is also fully aerobatic. Builders can fit either a Continental or Lycoming engine. The Titch was named after the test pilot who first flew the Taylor Monoplane, O.V.'Titch' Holmes. John Taylor was killed when the prototype Titch crashed at Southend on the 16 May 1967. The marketing of plans for both his aircraft designs were taken on by his wife and later his son.

The LeVier Cosmic Wind was a small single engine, single seat racing monoplane designed and built by staff of the Lockheed Corporation in 1947. It did not race successfully in the US but one won the premier cross-country competition in the UK in 1964.
The Cosmic Wind was designed and built by Lockheed's chief test pilot, Tony LeVier, and a group of Lockheed engineers. A very small single-seat racer, it was aimed at the Goodyear Trophy for Formula 1 class racers initiated in the US soon after World War II. It is an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane. Wings and tail surfaces are all straight-edged and tapered. The ailerons are full span and carry trim tabs, as does the full-fin-depth rudder. The undercarriage is fixed, with streamlined main legs and wheels in long fairings. The roller tail wheel is tucked into the rear corner of the fuselage behind the rudder. The cockpit is enclosed with a small, single-piece, perspex canopy. The first aircraft were powered by 85 hp (63 kW) Continental C-85 horizontally opposed engines but more recently at least four have used the 100 hp (75 kW) Continental O-200-A. The engine installation includes a large pointed spinner and long, bulbous cylinder head/exhaust fairings.

Westland Lysander Mk III (G-AZWT) V9367 The Collection's Lysander was built in Canada and was used by the RCAF as a target tug serialled 2355. It was bought after the war by Wes Agnew a farmer, former RCAF instructor and collector of aircraft. In 1971 it was purchased by Sir William Roberts for the Strathallan Collection in Scotland. It arrived in the UK in October 1971 and was registered G-AZWT, and work commenced on restoring it. However, it was not until December 1979 that G-AZWT flew again, painted as V9441 a Lysander operated by No.309 (Polish) Squadron. It was grounded in 1986 and was purchased in 1998 by the Shuttleworth Collection. It has been fully restored, repainted and fitted with dummy long range fuel tank and ladder to represent V9367 / MA-B an aircraft of 161 Squadron, flown by Pilot Officer Peter Vaughan-Fowler on operation Apollo during the winter of 1942. In it's all-black colours, it makes an unusual sight in the skies over Old Warden and is the last airworthy example of this historic type. Height: 14ft 6in Length: 30ft 6in Wingspan: 50ft Engine: one 870hp Bristol Mercury XX 9 cylinder radial Max. Speed 230mph Armament: two machine guns mounted in undercarriage fairings.

Hawker Sea Hurricane Mk1B (G-BKTH) Z7015. The Hawker Sea Hurricane was a variant of the Hawker Hurricane.  During World War II the Fleet Air Arm took on charge some 440 Sea Hurricanes, 60 of which were built new as Sea Hurricanes and the rest were conversions from former RAF Hurricanes some of which dated from 1938. The Sea Hurricane was initially deployed not for aircraft carrier operations but to protect merchant shipping. To combat German maritime-reconnaissance bombers, some ships were converted into CAMs (catapult aircraft merchantmen) which meant that a Hurricane fighter could be launched from the ship when danger approached. The biggest problem was that the fighter could not re-land on board, and so the pilot had to ditch it in the sea. The main areas of operation for the “Hurricat” or “Catafighters” were in the Mediterranean and Baltic. Later versions of the Sea Hurricane operated from aircraft carriers, being fitted usually with catapult spools and arrester hook, but by 1943 the Sea Hurricane had all but disappeared from service.

Gloster Gladiator Mk I (G-AMRK) L8032 was the last production Gladiator I built in 1937 but not actually assembled until 1938. In 1948 it, together Gladiator II N5903, was bought by Glosters. In 1950 the two were delivered to Air Service Training for use as instructional airframes at Hamble and Ansty. When Ansty closed the aircraft were bought by Viv Bellamy for a nominal sum. L8032 was restored using the engine from N5903 and flew again as G-AMRK. L8032 was bought back by Glosters in 1953 and in 1956 they decided to put it back to full military specification in 72 Squadron markings, albeit with the fictitious serial K8032. When Gloster Aircraft closed the Gladiator was presented to the Shuttleworth Collection for safe keeping on 7th November 1960. In 1990 the aircraft was repainted in a camouflage scheme, with No 247 Squadron codes and wore these until a fabric recover was carried out in 1996. Part of the restoration work was funded by donations in memory of the late Robin Bowes, a good friend and champion of the Collection, who was killed flying his Fokker DR1 replica on Sunday 20th July 1995. When finished the Gladiator emerged in Norweigian colours for filming. In 2007 it re-appeared as K7985 of 73 Squadron RAF, this aircraft was flown by the WW2 Ace Cobber Kain at the 1937 Hendon Air Pageant.

The de Havilland DH.60 Moth is a 1920s British two-seat touring and training aircraft that was developed into a series of aircraft by the de Havilland Aircraft Company.
The DH.60 was developed from the larger DH.51 biplane. The first flight of the Cirrus powered prototype DH.60 Moth (registration G-EBKT) was carried out by Geoffrey de Havilland at the works airfield at Stag Lane on 22 February 1925. The Moth was a two-seat biplane of wooden construction, it had a plywood covered fuselage and fabric covered surfaces, a standard tail plane with a single tail plane and fin. A useful feature of the design was its folding wings which allowed owners to hangar the aircraft in much smaller spaces. The then Secretary of State for Air Sir Samuel Hoare became interested in the aircraft and the Air Ministry subsidized five flying clubs and equipped them with Moths. The prototype was modified with a horn-balanced rudder, as used on the production aircraft, and was entered into the 1925 King's Cup Race flown by Alan Cobham. Deliveries commenced to flying schools in England. One of the early aircraft was fitted with an all-metal twin-float landing gear to become the first Moth seaplane. The original production Moths were later known as Cirrus I Moths. Three aircraft were modified for the 1927 King's Cup Race with internal modifications and a Cirrus II engine on a lowered engine mounting. The original designation of DH.60X (for experimental) was soon changed to Cirrus II Moth; the DH.60X designation was re-used in 1928 for the Cirrus III powered version with a split axle. The production run for the DH.60X Moth was short as it was replaced by later variants, but it was still available to special order.
Although the Cirrus engine was reliable, its manufacture was not. It depended on components salvaged from World War I–era 8-cylinder Renault engines and therefore its numbers were limited by the stockpiles of surplus Renaults. Therefore, de Havilland decided to replace the Cirrus with a new engine built by his own factory. In 1928 when the new de Havilland Gipsy I engine was available a company DH.60 Moth G-EBQH was re-engined as the prototype of the DH.60G Gipsy Moth.
Next to the increase in power, the main advantage of this update was that the Gipsy was a completely new engine available in as great a number as the manufacture of Moths necessitated. The new Gipsy engines could simply be built in-house on a production-line side by side with the production-line for Moth airframes. This also enabled de Havilland to control the complete process of building a Moth airframe, engine and all, streamline productivity and in the end lower manufacturing costs. While the original DH.60 was offered for a relatively modest £650, by 1930 the price of a new Gipsy-powered Moth was still £650, this in spite of its state-of-the-art engine and the effects of inflation.
A metal-fuselage version of the Gipsy Moth was designated the DH.60M Moth and was originally developed for overseas customers, particularly Canada. The DH.60M was also licence-built in Australia, Canada, the United States and Norway. Also in 1931 a variant of the DH.60M was marketed for military training as the DH.60T Moth Trainer.
In 1931 with the upgrade of the Gipsy engine as the Gipsy II, de Havilland inverted the engine and re-designated it the Gipsy III. The engine was fitted into a Moth aircraft, which was re-designated the DH.60G-III Moth Major. The sub-type was intended for the military trainer market and some of the first aircraft were supplied to the Swedish Air Force. The DH.60T was re-engined with the Gipsy III and was re-designated the DH.60T Tiger Moth. The DH.60T Tiger Moth was modified with swept back main planes, the “cabane” struts were also moved forward to improve egress from the front cockpit in case of emergency. The changes were considered great enough that the aircraft was re-designated the de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth.

The Comper C.L.A.7 Swift is a British 1930s single-seat sporting aircraft produced by Comper Aircraft Company Ltd of Hooton Park, Cheshire.
In March 1929 Flight Lieutenant Nicholas Comper left the Royal Air Force and formed the Comper Aircraft Company to build an aircraft he had designed, the Comper Swift. He had previously designed and flown three aircraft for the Cranwell Light Aeroplane Club: the C.L.A.2, C.L.A.3 and C.L.A.4. The prototype Swift (registered G-AARX) first flew at Hooton Park in January 1930. The aircraft was a small single-seat, braced high-wing monoplane constructed of fabric-covered spruce wood frames. The first Swift was powered by a 40 hp (30 kW) ABC Scorpion piston engine. After successful tests, seven more aircraft were built in 1930, powered by a 50 hp Salmson A.D.9 radial engine. Trials with Pobjoy P radial engine for use in air racing resulted in all the subsequent aircraft being powered by the Pobjoy R. The last three factory-built aircraft (sometimes called the Gipsy Swift) were fitted with de Havilland Gipsy engines - two with 120 hp (89 kW) Gipsy Major III, and one with a 130 hp (97 kW) Gipsy Major. One of the Gipsy Swifts, owned by the then-Prince of Wales and future King Edward VIII, won second place in the 1932 King's Cup Race while being flown by his personal pilot. Postwar, surviving Swifts continued to compete successfully in UK air races into the mid-1950s.

The Chilton D.W.1 is a British light sporting monoplane designed and built in the late 1930s by Chilton Aircraft at Hungerford, Berkshire.
The Chilton D.W.1 was designed and built on the Chilton Lodge estate at Leverton near Hungerford in Berkshire in early 1937 by two ex de Havilland Technical School students who formed Chilton Aircraft Limited for the purpose. The aircraft was intended to be cheap to build and operate, yet have an exceptional performance on low power. This was derived from its aerodynamically clean design with an all-wood airframe with plywood skin. Only the control surfaces and the trailing edge of the wing behind the rear spar were fabric covered. The wing also carried trailing edge split flaps. The undercarriage was enclosed in trouser fairings and a cabin top could be fitted.

The Miles Hawk Major was a 1930s British two-seat light monoplane designed by Miles Aircraft Limited.
The Hawk Major was designed as a successor to the Miles Hawk by F.G. Miles. Main changes were a de Havilland Gipsy III engine, metal (instead of wood) engine mount, and trousered undercarriage. The prototype (designated M.2F Hawk Major) was first flown in 1934 and went on to second place in the 1934 King's Cup Race at an average speed of 147.78 mph. A racing version was developed as the one-off single-seat M.2E Gipsy Six Hawk with a 200 hp de Havilland Gipsy Six engine. The production Hawk Major had the 130 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major engine. The aircraft sold well to private owners, including two that were fitted with smoke generators to allow them to be used as skywriters. An improved version (the M.2H) with a trailing edge flap replaced the M.2F on the production line. A number of special one-off racing versions were also built. In October 1934, Squadron Leader Malcolm Charles McGregor flew a Hawk Major from RAF Mildenhall to Melbourne, Australia in 7 days, 15 hours while competing in the MacRobertson Air Race. In 1936 Miles Hawk VI, G-ADOD was entered into the Schlesinger Race from Portsmouth to Johannesburg and flown by A. E. Clouston who nearly made it all the way to Johannesburg but had to make a forced crash landing due to engine trouble 150 miles south of Salisbury. In 1935, an improved version for training use was developed as the Miles Hawk Trainer.

The Miles M.11 Whitney Straight was a 1930s British two-seat cabin monoplane with dual-controls.
The M.11 Whitney Straight was designed by F.G. Miles of Philips and Powis as the result of collaboration with Whitney Straight, a Grand Prix motor racing driver, aviator and businessman. The aim was to provide comfortable accommodation for pilot, passenger and luggage in an enclosed 'side-by-side' cockpit. It was a low-wing monoplane, with fixed main undercarriage in aerodynamic fairings plus a fixed tail wheel. Construction was mainly of wood, with spruce frames and three-ply birch covering, and the wings had vacuum-operated split flaps. It was initially powered by a 130 hp (97 kW) de Havilland Gipsy Major I piston engine. The sole M.11B was powered by a 135 hp (101 kW) Amherst Villiers Maya I engine, adding 10 mph (16 km/h) to its maximum speed and 200 ft/min (60 m/min) to its rate of climb. A single M.11C was powered by a 145 hp (108 kW) de Havilland Gipsy Major II engine and variable-pitch propeller.

The Miles M.14 Magister was a British two-seat monoplane basic trainer aircraft built by the Miles Aircraft for the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. Affectionately known as the Maggie, the Magister was based on Miles' civilian Hawk Major and Hawk Trainer and was the first monoplane designed specifically as a trainer for the RAF. As a low-wing monoplane, it was an ideal introduction to the Spitfire and Hurricane for new pilots. Its sister design, the Miles Master was an advanced trainer also built by Phillips & Powis at Woodley.
The Miles M.14 was designed to meet Air Ministry Specification T.40/36 and was first flown on 20 March 1937 by F.G. Miles and then christened 'Magister'. Based on Miles' Hawk Trainer, the Magister is an open-cockpit, low wing cantilever monoplane of spruce structure covered in plywood. The wing center section has no dihedral and is of constant section with outer sections having dihedral and tapering towards the tip. It has a fixed tailwheel undercarriage with spats on the main wheels. Split flaps are fitted as standard. Early Magisters (including the first prototype) suffered a number of accidents when the aircraft could not be recovered from a spin. To solve this problem, the tailplane was raised by 6 inches (15 cm), anti-spin strakes fitted to the rear fuselage, and eventually, a new taller rudder. Thus modified, the aircraft became the definitive M.14A. Notwithstanding the relatively large number built, contemporary glues used to assemble the wooden aircraft have not stood the test of time and few survive today.

The Spartan 7W Executive was an aircraft produced by the Spartan Aircraft Company during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The 7W features an all-metal fuselage as well as a retractable undercarriage. The 7W Executive was popular with affluent buyers worldwide.
Designed for comfort, the interior of the 7W was spacious and featured 18 in (46 cm) of slide-back seat room for front-seat passengers, arm rests, ash trays, dome lighting, deep cushions, cabin heaters, ventilators, soundproofing, large windows, and interior access to the 100 lbs (45 kg) capacity luggage compartment. Built during the Great Depression, the 7W was the brainchild of company-founder William G. Skelly of Skelly Oil who desired a fast, comfortable aircraft to support his tastes and those of his rich oil-executive colleagues.
The Executive's high performance allowed the aircraft to compete in the 1939 Bendix Air Races piloted by Arlene Davis where it earned fifth place. A military variant of the 7W Executive with a greenhouse canopy covering a tandem cockpit was produced by Spartan with a more powerful 600 hp (447 kW) Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine and named the Spartan 8W Zeus.

The Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 was a British biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War.
The first examples reached the Western Front before the Sopwith Camel. Although it had a much better overall performance than the Camel, problems with its Hispano-Suiza engine, particularly the geared-output H-S 8B-powered early versions (mostly using four-blade propellers), meant that there was a chronic shortage of S.E.5s until well into 1918 and fewer squadrons were equipped with the S.E.5 than with the Sopwith fighter. Together with the Camel, the S.E.5 was instrumental in regaining allied air superiority in mid-1917 and maintaining it for the rest of the war, ensuring there was no repetition of "Bloody April" 1917 when losses in the Royal Flying Corps were much heavier than in the Luftstreitkräfte.
The S.E.5 (Scout Experimental 5) was designed by Henry P. Folland, John Kenworthy and Major Frank Goodden of the Royal Aircraft Factory in Farnborough. It was built around the new 150 hp (112 kW) Hispano-Suiza 8a V8 engine that, while providing excellent performance, was initially under-developed and unreliable. The first of three prototypes flew on 22 November 1916. The first two prototypes were lost in crashes (the first killing the chief test pilot at the Royal Aircraft Factory, Major F. W. Goodden on 28 January 1917) due to a weakness in their wing design. The third prototype underwent modification before production commenced; the S.E.5 was known in service as an exceptionally strong aircraft which could be dived at very high speed – the squarer wings also gave much improved lateral control at low airspeeds.
Like the other significant Royal Aircraft Factory aircraft of the war (B.E.2, F.E.2 and R.E.8) the S.E.5 was inherently stable, making it an excellent gunnery platform, but it was also quite maneuverable. It was one of the fastest aircraft of the war at 138 mph (222 km/h), equal at least in speed to the SPAD S.XIII and faster than any standard German type of the period.
While the S.E.5 was not as agile and effective in a tight dog fight as the Camel it was much easier and safer to fly, particularly for novice pilots. The S.E.5 had one synchronized .303-in Vickers machine gun to the Camel's two, but it also had a wing-mounted Lewis gun on a Foster mounting, which enabled the pilot to fire at an enemy aircraft from below as well as providing two guns firing forward. This was much appreciated by the pilots of the first S.E.5 squadrons as the new hydraulic-link "C.C." synchronizing gear for the Vickers was unreliable at first. The Vickers gun was mounted on the forward left dorsal surface of the fuselage with the breech inside the cockpit. The cockpit was set amidships, making it difficult to see over the long front fuselage, but otherwise visibility was good. Perhaps its greatest advantage over the Camel was its superior performance at altitude, making it a much better match for the Fokker D.VII when that fighter arrived at the front.
The Shuttleworth Collection F904 / G-EBIA
This airplane was built by Wolseley Motors and issued to No 84 Squadron RAF in France in November 1918. It was in action on 10th November piloted by Major C E M Pickthorn MC, the squadron commander, when he successfully destroyed a Fokker DVII in the vicinity of Chimay in Belgium. Post war the now surplus aircraft was bought, with others, by Major J C Savage for his skywriting business and, registered G-EBIA, used from 1924 to 1928 when it was put into store. In 1955 it was recovered from storage up in the roof of the Armstrong Whitworth flight shed at Baginton and restored for the Collection by staff and apprentices at RAE Farnborough, flying again in August 1959 fitted with a geared Hispano Suiza. When the crankshaft of this engine sheared in flight in 1975 the aircraft was rebuilt with a 200 hp Wolseley Viper.
Extensively refurbished in 2007, the SE5a is now in displayed in the colours and markings of 84 Squadron.

The Bristol M.1 Monoplane Scout was a British monoplane fighter of the First World War.
In 1916, Frank Barnwell, chief designer of Bristol Aeroplane Company, realizing that the performance of existing fighter aircraft was inadequate, designed a new single-seat tractor monoplane fighter as a private venture, the Bristol M.1.
The first prototype, the M.1A made its maiden flight on 14 July 1916. It was of conventional wood and fabric construction, with a carefully streamlined circular cross-section fuselage. The wing was shoulder mounted and was braced with flying wires running from the wing to the lower fuselage and landing wires from the wings to a “cabane” made of two semi-circular steel tube hoops positioned over the pilot's cockpit. A 110 horsepower (82 kW) Clerget rotary engine drove a two-bladed propeller fitted with a large hemispherical spinner to reduce drag. It was purchased by the War Office for evaluation, and demonstrated impressive performance during official testing, reaching a speed of 128 miles per hour (206 km/h) and climbing to 10,000 feet (3,000 m) in 8 minutes 30 seconds, although the forward and downward view was criticized by test pilots.
The War Office ordered four modified aircraft, designated M.1B, in October 1916. These differed from the first prototype in having a more conventional “cabane” consisting of a pyramid of four straight steel struts, a large clear-view cut-out panel in the starboard wing root to give improved view for landing and a single .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun mounted on the port wing root.
Despite excellent performance - it had a maximum speed some 30-50 mph (50–80 km/h) higher than any of the contemporary German Fokker Eindecker and French Morane-Saulnier N monoplanes - it was rejected by the Air Ministry for service on the Western Front, ostensibly because its landing speed of 49 mph was considered too high for small French airfields, but more likely because of a widespread belief that monoplane aircraft were inherently unsafe in combat. The RFC had imposed a ban on monoplanes after the crash of one of the Bristol-Coanda Monoplanes on 10 September 1912, and despite the subsequent 1913 Monoplane Committee clearing the design type there persisted a deep-rooted suspicion of monoplanes. This suspicion may also have been re-inforced by the RFC's underwhelming experience with various Morane-Saulnier monoplanes, especially the Morane-Saulnier N, which was also criticised for its high landing speed. Nevertheless, a production order for 125 aircraft was placed on 3 August 1917. Designated M.1C, this version was fitted with a Le Rhône rotary engine and had a Vickers machine gun centrally-mounted in front of the pilot.
A single M.1, registered G-EAVP was rebuilt as a high-speed test bed for the Bristol Lucifer three cylinder radial engine. This aircraft was designated the M.1D.
The Shuttleworth Collection M1C (G-BWJM Replica)
The Collection financed a project to build a Bristol M.1C (G-BWJM). The project which was started by Northern Aeroplane Workshops Jack Smallwood, carries the colours of aircraft C 4918 of C Flight No 72 Squadron Royal Flying Corp in 1917. Delivery took place in October 1997. Fitted with an original 110hp Le Rhone engine the aircraft has displayed at Old Warden since her first flight on 25 September 2000.

Visitor aircraft back to homebase...
Andreasson BA-4B Scottich Aviation Bulldog
De Havilland DH-80A Puss Moth De Havilland DH-82A Tiger Moth
De Havilland DH-87B Hornet Moth De Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk 22
Piper J-3C De Havilland DH-89A Dragon Rapide
The Great "Edwardian" final

The Boxkite (officially the Bristol Biplane) was the first aircraft produced by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company (later known as the Bristol Aeroplane Company). A pusher biplane based on the successful Farman III, it was one of the first aircraft types to be built in quantity. As the machine was used by Bristol for instruction purposes at their flying schools at Larkhill and Brooklands many early British aviators learned to fly in a Boxkite. Four were purchased in 1911 by the War Office and examples were sold to Russia and Australia. It continued to be used for training purposes until after the outbreak of the First World War.
The Boxkite was a two-bay biplane with an elevator carried on booms in front of the wings and an empennage consisting of a pair of fixed horizontal stabilizers, the upper bearing an elevator, and a pair of rudders carried on booms behind the wing. There were no fixed vertical surfaces. Lateral control was effected by ailerons on both upper and lower wings. These were single-acting, the control cables arranged to pull them down only, relying on the airflow to return them to the neutral position. The wings and fixed rear horizontal surfaces were covered by a single layer of fabric: the other surfaces were covered on both sides. Power was usually provided by a 50 hp (37 kW) Gnome rotary engine, although other engines were also used. This was mounted on a pair of substantial wooden beams mounted above the lower wing: these continued forward to carry the seats, which were arranged in tandem, with the pilot sitting over the leading edge of the wing. The undercarriage consisted of a pair of long skids, each bearing a pair of wheels sprung by bungee cords, and a single sprung tailskid mounted below the leading edge of the lower tailplane. The first two Boxkites, assigned works numbers 7 and 8, differed in detail from the later production aircraft; the front outrigger booms were braced by a pair of vertical struts and were attached to the ends of the interplant struts. This arrangement was inherited from the Zodiac, being necessary in that aircraft because the front spar of the wing did not also form the leading edge. Additionally the rear elevator had a straight trailing edge. No. 8 also had double-surfaced wings; the wings of No. 7 were single-surfaced with the ribs enclosed in pockets, like production aircraft. No. 7 was initially fitted with a 50 hp (37 kW) Grégoire, but for its first flight this was replaced by a Gnome, although the Grégoire was later refitted for trial purposes: No. 8 had a 50 hp (37 kW) E.N.V.
The first examples built had upper and lower wings of equal span, although most of the aircraft eventually produced had an extended upper wing and were known as the Military Version. The examples of this type sold to the Russian government and the first aircraft sold to the British Army were fitted with a third rudder hinged to the centre leading-edge interplane strut of the tailplane, but this was not made standard.
Two modified Boxkites were produced for competition purposes. The first, No. 44, was a single-seater built to compete in the 1911 Circuit of Europe air race and had reduced wingspan and a nacelle for the pilot, similar to the Bristol Type T. The second, No.69, was a redesign by Gabriel Voisin, who was employed as a consultant by Bristol. This had no front elevator, monoplane tail with a single rudder, and a reduced gap between the wings. It was tested at Larkhill in February 1912, but was evidently unsuccessful since it was soon rebuilt as a standard Boxkite and was to crash in November 1912.
Production continued until 1914 with a total of 78 being built, 60 of which were the extended Military Version, one racer (No. 44) and the voisin variant (No. 69); all but the last six aircraft were built at Filton. The remaining six were built at Brislington by the Tramway Company.

The Roe I Triplane (often later referred to as the Avro Triplane) was an early aircraft designed and built by A.V. Roe which was the first all-British aircraft to fly. (Roe's previous biplane had a French engine).
The Roe I Triplane was a two-bay triplane: the tailplane, with a span of 10 feet (3.0 m) also had three surfaces and was a lifting rather than a stabilizing surface, making up around 33% of the total lifting area. Pitch control was effected by altering the angle of incidence of the mainplaines, and lateral control was by wing-warping. The control cables acted to warp the middle wing, the warping being transmitted to the top and bottom planes by the rear interplane struts. Directional control was effected by a rectangular rudder mounted behind the tailplane, and as first built additional directional stability was provided by surfaces between the interplane struts of the tail assembly. The fuselage was a triangular section wire-braced wooden structure, with the middle wing and tailplane mounted on the upper longerons, and a gap between the lower planes and the lower longeron. The engine was mounted below the leading edge of the wing, with a belt drive to the propeller driveshaft which was mounted above the upper longerons. Both fuselage and wings were covered with brown paper backed by an open-weave fabric. Roe named the aircraft The Bullseye after the braces manufactured by his brother's firm, which had helped pay for it.
Roe had originally intended to use a four-cylinder inline engine which J.A. Prestwich were developing but this failed when bench tested by Prestwich, so Roe initially installed the 6 horsepower (hp) JAP engine from his previous aircraft. Taxying trials with this engine were begun in April 1909. At the end of May a new 9 hp (7 Kw) JAP engine was delivered, and after fitting this a series of brief flights of around 50 ft (15 m) were made, beginning on the 5 June. During these Roe experimented with different reduction ratios between the engine and propeller and also with varying pitch settings for the propeller blades, which could be adjusted between flights. On 13 July, he achieved a flight of 100 ft (30 m), and ten days later one of 900 ft (280 m). Over the next two months further successful flights were made and the aircraft was modified slightly: the drive belt was replaced by a chain, the vertical tail surfaces were removed and both engine and pilot's seat were moved forwards.
Roe took the prototype and a second aircraft, differing in having a slightly tapered fuselage and a tailskid in place of a tail wheel, to the Blackpool Aero Meeting held at the end of October 1909. Some short flights were made using the first machine: the engine for the second, a four-cylinder JAP intended to produce 20 hp (15 kW) only arrived half-way through the event and although the engine was fitted poor weather prevented it being flown. The flights made at Blackpool were the last made by the prototype: it was subsequently exhibited at an exhibition held in Manchester in 1914 and was later presented to the Science Museum in London.
By this time Roe had been evicted from the railway arches in Walthamstow: he resumed his flying activities at Wembley, where the second example was first flown on 6 December. It was damaged in a crash on 24 December. In January 1910 Roe formed the firm of A.V. Roe and Company with the assistance of his brother Humphrey, and workshop space was provided in the factory of Humphrey's company, Everard and Co, at Brownfield Mills, Manchester. Flying operations were transferred to Brooklands, where the aircraft was flown on 11 March 1910. By now Roe's interest was focused on his next aircraft, the Roe II Triplane, which was at that time on display at the second Aero Show at Olympia. The Roe I was briefly used for experiments with the outer sections of the lower wing removed and longer outer sections fitted to the upper wings, this configuration being known as the "two and a bit plane". This was flown at Brooklands during the Aero Meeting on Easter Monday 1910, but the experiment was not pursued and the machine was dismantled at Brooklands shortly afterwards.
On 12 July 2009, an event was held on Walthamstow Marshes to commemorate the first all British flight under the auspices of the Royal Aeronautical Society, with several generations of Roe's family in attendance. A new historic marker was unveiled on the northern entrance to Roe's former workshops in the railway arches.

The Blackburn Type D monoplane, sometimes known as the Single Seat Monoplane, was built by Robert Blackburn at Leeds in 1912. It is a single-engine mid-wing monoplane. Restored shortly after the Second World War, it remains part of the Shuttleworth Collection and is the oldest British flying aeroplane.
The Type D, a wooden, fabric-covered single-seat monoplane powered by a 50 hp (40 kW) Gnome rotary engine, was built for Cyril Foggin in 1912.
The design inherited some features from the earlier Mercury: it too had thin wings of constant chord with square tips of about the same span as the later Mercuries and used wing warping rather than ailerons. The wing was wire braced from above via a kingpost and below via the undercarriage, and was built up around machined I-section ash spars. The Type D also had the triangular cross-section fuselage seen on several of Blackburn's aircraft from the Second Monoplane onward.
It was a neater-looking machine with a shorter fuselage, cowled engine, simplified undercarriage and heavily-revised empennage. The fuselage had rounded upper decking and aluminium covering at the front. Blackburn had persisted with the Second Monoplane's Antoinette-style fin and tailplane through subsequent aircraft, but the Type D's tailplane had a much less steeply swept leading edge (though still 60°) than its predecessors and carried a divided elevator. The fin likewise was less swept though still long, and now carried a single rudder rather than the characteristic triangular pair previously used. The undercarriage featured a pair of wheels, compared with four on the Mercury, with two struts per side terminating on skids and joined by the axle and a higher transverse strut. For the first time, Blackburn fitted a rudder bar in preference to his "triple steering column". The aircraft first flew late in 1912. Some modifications followed in time: the engine cowling was extended into a semicircular shape to discourage the discharge of smoke and hot oil from the rotary into the cockpit; the wing tips were slightly rounded; and the crook-shaped skids were replaced by ones of hockey stick form. In 1913 the basic Type D design was developed into the two-seat Blackburn Type I.

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